"Knights of the Golden Circle"
other names
"Order of American Knights"
"Order of the Sons of Liberty"

Names of members of the Order of the American Knights within the State
of Missouri as far as known up to present date.

Symbols * = Arrested.        t$  or ti  or tj =  Under oath and bond. t = Under oath.
ie: Dr. Thomas S. Smith, tj 

This list is taken from the "War of the Rebellion"  text  from Cornell University digital library  and there are glaring and obvious errors from ocr'ing and translating back to text. " in" becomes "iii". Some had been corrected, others left as is, due to time constraints and no  proof reading against the printed pages.
Corrected text will be welcomed, "if corrected in the entirety" and not a word here and there.


John Huston, Richmond, Ray County; James G. Moore, Keytesville, Chariton County; James G. Adkins, t$ James L. Dickson, E. P. Armstrong, t Liberty, Clay County; William H. Howerton, C. L. Fleming,
Keytesville, Chariton County; Bill Williams, Salem Hubbard, John W. (lasliwalder, Renick, Randolph County; Doctor Callaway, Dr. Thomas S. Smith, tj  Boyd MeCrary, Fayette, Howard County; Dr. William Jack-
son, Judge W. R. Heath, Franklin, Howard County; Doctor McClennan, Providence, Boone County; Doctor Carr, Hibernia, Callaway County; Robert St. Clair, Martin Clark, Florida, Audrain County; Doctor Thornton, Henry County; Henry Harris, Saline County; John F. White, Franklin County; — Jones, Huntington, Henry County;Captain Pulliam, Bill Meyers, Lincoln County; Robert M. George, Boonville, Cooper County; Richard Burke, Lawrence Gaudford, James XV. Hall, Levy XV. Robertson, Thomas C. Mitchell, Otterville, Cooper
County; J. C. Benson, Boonville, Cooper County; Gormnan, Charleston, Mississippi County; Davis, Palmyra, Marion County; T. L. Brown, J. L. Syphene, Renick, Randolph County; Young, Centralia; J. Skinner; Jonesborough; Joseph Steadman, Glasgow; A. Mosely,1j Audrain County; B. W. Tallene, Montgomery
County; Pitts, Ihoward County; James M. B arch, Montgomery County; Isaac N. Freeman; .John Bunch, Wellsville; Andrew Perry;Captain Sharp; Squire Aubrey; Doctor Ferguson, Jefferson City, Cole County; James Beckworth, Jonesborough; Maj or Harris, Cooper County; Colonel Burkhardt, Callaway County; Dr. M. C. McCamey, Saint Catherines; George H. Taylor,* Macon; David S. Whaley,* William Curtis, Doctors Howard,* senior and junior, Tuttle, Robinson,Ful ton, Callaway County; Mark Condiff, Washington Jones, Henry Tutt, Simeon Kemper, Joseph J. Able, B. Thompson, Buchanan County;Clinton Cockerill, Platte County; M. Poag, Clay County; Joseph Brad-ley, William Sebrad, Hollingsworth, Smith, Judge Thomp-somi, Platte County; Henry Bane, Reed Slackman, Andrew County; James Donavan, Platte County; Doctor Christian, Renick, Randolph County; John Harrison,1j Howard County; Parson David Brooks, Doctor Beaumont, John Ragsdale,I~ Doctor Bishop, Rufus Maggot,William Downing4 Cicero Downing, Platte County; Hiram Hurst,tj
William Phelan Thomas Roberts Lient. John Martin, Charles Spencer, George Roberts, Joseph White, Buchanan County; E.Downing, Platte County; Franklin Spencer, Thomas Squires, Alfred Squires,t$ John Hendricks, William Wallingford,t$ George Roberts,Calbert Brown, Buchanan County; William Sharp,It  Roderick Sharp,
John Lewis, Erastus Carter, Guy Brown, Green Thompson, first, John Brown, first4 J. Pepper,1j Luke West,ij John Lykins, second, Green hlackett, George Goldsberry, George Gantt, William Allen, James Allen, Platte County; John Gantt, Tuntz Miller, William Moore, Robert Thomas, first, John Whittington and brother, George Rector, Esquire Willis, Buchanan County; Samuel King, James Lane, John Ross, George Boatwright, near line of Platte and Buchanan Counties; C. E. Manhondra, Marshfield; Green Thompson, second, John Brown, sec-
ond, John Br own, third, Platte County; John Moore, Robert Thomas, second, John Lykins, first, Buchanan County; George Phelan, mail carrier, headquarters, Fouse, Buchanan County; P. Riterinan, Major Price, Clay County; hsrael Lands,tj Buchanan County; Colonel Morse; W. A. Cunningham, Saint Joseph; Jeff Jones,4 Callaway County; William Douglas, Price’s army; Col. J. H. Winston, Price’s army, Platte County; Colonel Bankhead, Captain Whitehead, Price’s army; James H. Moss, North Missouri; T. J. Bracken, Rushville, North Missouri; John Daniels, Camden Point; Helmore Howerson, Platte County

James Spratt, Platte City; Doctor Schneider, Howard County; B. F. Holland, Skinner, sr., Montgomery County; William Elliott, Randolph County; Nathan A. Fields, Henry County; Doctor Hamilton (active), Cohn Williams (active), Henick, Mo.; Mr. Jacobs (active),  merchant; John Herrold, tobacconist~ Newton Duncan, Fayette, How-ard County; Mr. Douglas, clerk for Jacobs, Henick; Little James Hardin, four miles of Renick; Young Williams; Mr. Marshal, wagon maker, Renick Mr. Marshal, blacksmith, Renick; Mr. Wilcoyen, farmer; Joseph Blackford, near Renick, farmer; S( mire Collins, nine miles from Renick, farmer; Burrell Hunter, three miles from iRenick, farmer; Mr. Overton, proprietor National Hotel, Palmyra; James Overton, Palmyra;Samuel Anderson, formerly of the rebel army; Captain Pratt; Mr. Grant, druggist, Fulton, Callaway County; Oscar H. White, son of John B.White, Doctor Wayland, Merritt H. Hughes, Joseph Hughes, Mr. Lee,partner of M. H. Hughes, John Thompson, Squire Cox, H. H. Robinson, IN. G. Elliott, Franklin, Howard County; 0. Heavis, Columbia, Boone County; Mr. Carroll, Mexico, Audrain County.

Names of members of the Order of American Knights in different locali
ties as far as known to date.

B. B. Piper, Judge Treat, S. D. Staly, Judge Rice, Doctor Van
Dusen, J. H. Perkins, Mr. Hicks, sheriff, J. S. Vredenburg, mayor, E. B.
Herndon, Springfield, IlL; L. D. Norton, Lincoln, Ill.; William H.
Renfro, Springfield, Ill.; Mr. Judd, Lewistown, Ill.; G. W. Shutt,
Springfield, Ill.; Doctor Baxter, Chicago, Ill.; C. M. Morrison, Spring-
field, Ill.; D. Edwards, H. T. M errick, Springfield, 111.; W. A. Trurney,
Springfield, Ill.; Doctor Thornton, Louisville; Ky.; Alex. Starite,
Springfield, Ill.; Grant, Bardstown road, thirteen miles from
Louisville, Ky; J. C. McCormick, Bardstown road n
John Schneider, Joseph Martin, 306 Maui street, ear Grant’s, Ky.;
Louisville, Ky.; J. H.
Cutler, Sparks, Main street, between First and Second, Louis-
ville, Ky.; J. D. Bondurant, C. C. Spencer, Moore, 320 Main
street, Louisville, Ky.; J. N. Willard, Donnell, 309 Green street,
Louisville, Ky.; Steele, Westport, Ky.; L. P. Clover, Spring-
field, Ill.; S. Dow Elwood, J. H. Harmon or Howard, Detroit, Mich.;
Dr. Z. Anderson, Carlyle, Ill.; William M. Springer, Springfield,
Ill.; Holly Hareford, Lima, Ill.; Virgil Hickox, Springfield, Ill.; W. A.
Bowles, senior major-general, Indiana; Judge Bullitt, grand councilor
of the State of Kentucky; C. L. Yallandigham, commander-in-chief
Dayton, Ohio; Robert Holloway, department grand commander, Illi-
nois; N. H. Ridgely, Springfield, Ill.; Doctor Massey, grand secretary
and Secretary of State, Ohio; Doctor Gatling, inventor of gun so called;
jailer of Louisville jail, Kentucky; Lafayette Devehin, Wayne County,
md., grand commander of the State of Indiana; Humphreys,
major-general for Indiana; Milligan, major-general for Indiana;
Yagel, major-general for Indiana.

MAY 25, 1864.
Indisposition has been the cause of not making more frequent reports recently. To-night there was a meeting of the lodge in Tenth ward, at Webster and Fifth streets. Durdee l)resided, Ward as worthy senior.
Weimer, now nnder bond, as secretary. There were about twenty-five present, none admitted, and several proposed, E. F. Jones, S. P. Ashby among the number. Among those present were W. B. Johnson ,a stock trader, Scobee House; John Taylor, Montgomery House; Buck Carr, always about Montgomery House; Major Harris, Cooper County, who is grand worthy of that county; Colonel Burkhardt, Callaway County. Jones is grand councilor of Callaway County. I learned also that there is a Captain Head, just from Price’s army, at Montgomery House, but now sick there.
At the previous meeting it had been agreed that a certain policy should be pursued in organizing a company and disciplining it for fighting l~uLposes. The plan, as developed, seems to have been this,that all the city lodges shonld enroll all its fighting members, who are to organize and select officers, by whom they are secretly to be drilled, each officer to take a squad. The plan originally proposed of each ward enrolling its own members and organizing a company of the enrolled militia of the State is thought to be unsafe, though Chapman has such a company, and several others I am told have beeu so organized. It had been made the duty of Wei~ner to take down the names of all the fighting members in a cipher of his own, but to-night he begged off,
and said he was under bond, and was afraid if such cipher were found on him it would bring him imito trouble. They agreed, therefore, to have a meeting next Wednesday evemmimig at same place, at which all should
attend, when an organization should be made, officers elected, &c. During the proceedings, Johnson l)resented a communication in writ-ing from Charles L. Hunt, the grand commander of the State, which
was read. The purport of it was that he had understood that he was frequently mentioned by name by the members, against a repetition of which he warned them; they should designate him by his title, lest his
name should become public, and, before they knew it, he and other officers of the grand council would be in Gratiot Street Prison. He congratulated the lodge on the success which had attended their organization, and the bright prospects before them. lie said the days of Missouri were now brighter than ever for her to throw off the yoke of slavery now upon her.
Major Harris made a long speech, giving an account of the condition
of the interior of the State and the condition and progress of the order.
He stated that the counties of Callaway, Boone, Howard, Randolph,
Chariton, and Cooper, through all of which he had passed and visited
every lodge and temple, were in a far better condition than here. The
material of the order he thought was better; they had more opportu-
nity for consultation and organization. He said the greatest difficulty
there was for the officers to keep the people subordinate until the
proper time to strike arrived. He had also traveled through Illinois
and had found the same difficulty there. He said they would get
the proper notice in official forum from the grand commander when the
time should come for action, and he advised all to await that.
Tie spoke of General Price and eulogized him. He said he was in
direct communication with Price, Marmaduke, and the rebels in
Arkansas, and he expected and looked forward for a raid from Marina-
duke, but they should not act upon such expectation until they had
the official notice of it, which would come to them in due time.
The grand worthy senior (Durdee) in a few remarks spoke of several
members being lukewarm, but said when they would hear of the suc-
cess of our arms (meaning rebel arms), which he had uo doubt they
would be, these lukewarm gentlemen would fire up and become
The lodge at O’Fallon and Broadway, called Richard Montgomery
lodge, meets next Saturday. I was told yesterday by Hunt that I
should get two vouchers, it requiring two, and he would have me
admitted to the second degree. Without that I can get but little infor-
mation. That degree would enable inc to know more of the working
of the order in the State.
I see Hunt frequently, stop in at his office to talk with him, but only
within the limits of the first degree. They are very particular about
admitting beyond the first degree.
The grand council of the State meets ouce a month and none are
admitted under the second degree. I have been unable to find out
much about it. Those who have the second and higher degree commu-
nicate nothing about the higher degrees to those having only the first.
Major Harris, in his speech, spoke about the U. S. troops having
all been taken away and that the eiirolled militia would amount to
nothing. He looked upon a raid by Marmaduke, therefore, as an easy
matter. He said 200 Southern men could even now, so small were the
garrisons of U. S. troops in Nortli Missouri, take all the troops from
the Mississippi to the Kansas borders. He gave a detailed account
where the troops were posted and the number at each place; also the
points of easy access and passage where there are none.


GENTRYvILLE, Mo., June 10, 1864.

SIR: I send you a list of names with request of articles with money
due. You will please do the best you can for ns and at as early a
period. Let inc hear soon. There are many others that would (and in
fact will probably) subscribe, but their livers are a most too white, &c.
While I remain, yours, fraternally and all 0. A. K.,
J. DAVIS, 0. S.



Knights of the Golden Circle   
secret order of Southern sympathizers in the North during the Civil War. Its members were known as Copperheads . Dr. George W. L. Bickley, a Virginian who had moved to Ohio, organized the first “castle,” or local branch, in Cincinnati in 1854 and soon took the order to the South, where it was enthusiastically received. Its principal object was to provide a force to colonize the northern part of Mexico and thus extend proslavery interests, and the Knights became especially active in Texas. Secession and the outbreak of the Civil War prompted a shift in its aims from filibustering in Mexico to support of the new Southern government. Appealing to the South's friends in the North, particularly in areas that were suffering economic dislocation, the order soon spread to Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, and Missouri. Its membership in these states, where it became strongest, was largely composed of Peace Democrats, who felt that the Civil War was a mistake and that the increasing power of the federal government was leading toward tyranny. They did not, however, at this time engage in any treasonable activity. In late 1863 the Knights of the Golden Circle was reorganized as the Order of American Knights and again, early in 1864, as the Order of the Sons of Liberty, with Clement L. Vallandigham , most prominent of the Copperheads, as its supreme commander. Only a minority of its membership was radical enough—in some localities—to discourage enlistments, resist the draft, and shield deserters. Numerous peace meetings were held. A few extreme agitators, some of them encouraged by Southern money, talked of a revolt in the Old Northwest, which, if brought about, would end the war. Southern newspapers wishfully reported stories of widespread disaffection, and John Hunt Morgan's raid (1863) into Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio was undertaken in the expectation that the disaffected element would rally to his standard. Gov. Oliver P. Morton of Indiana and Gen. Henry B. Carrington effectively curbed the Sons of Liberty in that state in the fall of 1864. With mounting Union victories late in 1864, the order's agitation for a negotiated peace lost appeal, and it soon dissolved.
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